You can read more about the Elkem Solar Silicon® carbon footprint here:
Environmental footprint of ESS®
In 2012 a verification program was initiated to document the performance of ESS™ at the module level. This led to interesting new results about the ESS® materials high temperature and high irradiation performance, where it actually outperforms polysilicon reference modules in some areas.
The results from the verification projects are published regularly in journals and presented at International PV conferences.
A number of PhD students and direct university research programs are part of the development and verification processes.
Read more in our case study from Hyberabad, India.